I chose to create a simple and clean header that is visually appealing, but not too busy. I decided on the white background for versatility and a simplistic object (a needle) that is meaningful to our issue. I purposefully angled the needle so that the text would be divided. The font I chose to use is Century, a clean and sophisticated style. I placed the title in the upper division of header in size 36. The needle divides the header in half and in the lower header I placed our slogan. I had to be careful wording our slogan to avoid using terms that may offend the clients of the needle exchange. The slogan is in size 18 font and I broke it up into three evenly spaced lines to avoid clutter. I tried to maintain consistency and even spacing to make the header look as clean as possible. After all, our goal is to promote the usage of clean needles, so a visually clean header is appropriate.

NASTAD, The National Alliance of State and Territorial Aids directors, maintains a blog on wordpress.com that facilitates communication, collaboration and support in the HIV/AIDS epidemic. It also serves as a voice for the states and plays a role in advocacy. The frequently updated blog and website also administers to HIV/AIDS victims. It provides resources and prevention methods, such as information about the clean needle exchange. The design of the blog is very well organized and allows the user to pinpoint an exact article or piece of information as well as select a category of blog entry and the month desired. There is a search bar, and every section is categorized, allowing information, such as the clean needle exchange, to be found quickly and easily.

The community that NASTAD targets is primarily state and territorial health departments, but they also work with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA).  As a result of poor federal funding for needle exchange programs in the U.S., HIV/AIDS programs found it increasingly necessary to speak with one voice directed at interactions with federal funding agencies. NASTAD’s effort of their single blog and website is to work as a simple medium for HIV/AIDS agencies trying to connect at federal level.  NASTAD’s blog serves the nation not only with crucial information and as a representation to federal agencies of what is needed for the HIV/AID epidemic, but also as an outlet for staff and peer support.

The primary audience of the NASTAD website and blog are the members (both the AIDS directors and other health department staff working in HIV/AIDS and viral hepatitis programs). They also have a significant global program currently supporting activities in several African countries and Haiti. Additionally, the blog caters to an audience of potential and existing HIV/AIDS victims by providing direct services and clean needle exchange. Users can utilize the blog and website to educate themselves and seek the necessary help for prevention of a specific disease.

Over the last decade, NASTAD has succeeded in reaching their desired audience and facilitating the communication and advocacy needed. The national peer network, created by NASTAD, has enabled AIDS directors to come together to collaborate on issues affecting all jurisdictions as well as support one another in learning how to handle policy, planning, evaluation issues, prevention, care programs and services.

NASTAD is currently working to revamp their website to allow easier interaction and make it more user friendly. They created a Facebook page and are on Twitter to reach out to a wide range of audiences who may not all be associated with the NASTAD blog.

Interviewee:

Natalie O. Cramer
NASTAD
Associate Director of Prevention

Enacting Liberation and Enforcing Prosecution

Ending human trafficking through government supported programs for the long term rehabilitation of its victims.

The poor economic standing of the United States is currently causing tough financial circumstances for most U.S. citizens and raising the much debated question of where spending should be prioritized. With unemployment in the U.S. currently so high, prostitution as a means of work, is flourishing. Yet, the vast majority of prostitution in the U.S. is controlled by pimps and traffickers and can be correctly termed, human trafficking. In this sex obsessed society however, there is a great misconception that prostitutes choose their work, that they are the ones to be punished for this crime. This has been proven false however, as human trafficking manipulates and forces physical and emotional abuse upon the often, young and vulnerable victim. Human trafficking is the fastest growing crime in the United States and Portland, Oregon ranks second among U.S. cities. In fact, sex trafficking accounts for 85 percent of all human trafficking crimes in the world. The main contributor to these crimes, the sex industry, has profits of 88 billion dollars a year. This lucrative business is fueled by men and consumes women and children as their victims. Given the current depressed economic state and sudden rise in human trafficking crimes, the United States government needs to increase efforts to investigate and prosecute human trafficking crimes and increase funding to victims through protection services.

The day that Jeri Williams was rescued from her life of prostitution was the day her pimp was arrested. She had tried to escape from the two bedroom apartment her pimp’s gang had inhabited, but the beatings were too violent as was his forceful ways of keeping her constrained in a life of manipulation and bondage. Jeri is a prime example of prostitution victim caught in the business with no way out. Advocate Esther Nelson, from The Sexual Assault Resource Center witnesses the damage human trafficking does to girls and young women every day. Many of the girls are taken off the streets, but because they don’t have a stable, safe place to go and with no after-care recovery programs available, they enter back onto the streets almost immediately after they leave SARC. According to the article, Tales from the Field, even when a victim is treated, she often finds it hard to assimilate back into a normal lifestyle because the belief system that the pimps instilled upon her consists of intense brain manipulation and the complete breakdown of her life. Most victims’ aftermath symptoms are lasting and in order for them to not return to the streets, they are in need of long-term, professional care.

This long-term care is not commonly found in the United States. According to Foreign Policy in Focus, the previous Bush administration supported prosecuting the prostitute in the crime of trafficking. Foreign Policy in Focus argues that instead, the U.S. government, under the Obama, administration must reject these old policies and move forward by providing the victims with professional treatment and harshly prosecuting the pimp. All prostitution is trafficking, and the United States’ method of creating change by locking away the victims will not effectively stop this crime. Karla Dial of Citizen Magazine also agrees that long-term policy changes need to be established to thwart this issue. Currently, “…there is no federal law that provides resources to domestic victims of child exploitation” (Dial, 7).  As well, “It’s not a problem the girls or law enforcement have, it’s a problem the men have” (Fraley, Citizen Magazine). There are currently loop-holes in the justice system that the johns and traffickers can slip through. If a john says he didn’t know the girl he previously had sex with from the street was under 18, he is only charged with a misdemeanor. Esther Nelson states that, “we have a system in place that is supposed to afford victims justice and until we start holding traffickers and “johns” accountable, we’re not going to see a change. If we don’t reduce the demand for the sale of humans, we’re not going to stop seeing this phenomenon take place.” As well, Dial believes that these loop-holes and the true criminals to blame are being looked over by the government and that stricter laws must be put into place.

Esther Nelson argues that more funding must be provided for long-term aftercare programs because currently, resources such as SARC can only give as many resources as the government funding will pay for. SARC and other resource centers in the local Portland area, are unable to provide full care and continual services if the state funding is not suffice. When a girl is initially rescued, she generally needs a safe place to go. Providing a shelter with beds is an initial start for recovery, yet shelters like this rarely exist. Recently Transitions Global, a non-profit organization attempted to bring twenty beds to Portland Oregon, the city with the second highest number of human trafficking crimes in the nation. This attempt failed, however because of inadequate funding. The key organizations that fight to combat human trafficking are usually non-profits which mean they receive limited amounts of money from donations. When these organizations do not have the funding they need, there is no capacity for change.

The largest barrier preventing change from happening, aside from government funding, is the misconception within society of what human trafficking truly is. Much of society does not know that is exists in the United States and that the number of victims is quickly growing. This is perhaps because of the failure of the government and media to educate the public and promote awareness. One example of a victim of this societal misconception expressed his view about the legalization of prostitution on Askville provided by Amazon.com.  He argued that by legalizing prostitution in the U.S., the crime rate would lower and law-enforcement would be able to focus on more substantial issues. He continued to state that he believed if a prostitute is rescued once and they return to the streets, there is no need to help them a second time. If they return a second time, it is obviously by choice, therefore our government should not fund further after-care programs. This blogger is clearly a victim to the common misconception that prostitutes are the ones to blame. Academic research on human trafficking reveals that most victims have not chosen their occupation, but rather are forced into the business by a pimp.

Research, that is currently being done on human trafficking, is analyzing the main contributors to human trafficking such as poverty, classism and racial background. Through investigations of these demographics of the victims, traffickers and the sex industry, publications such as Sex Trafficking of Women in the United States has formed a foundation of knowledge that can be used by the government to make executive decisions towards this issue. The conclusion this publication came to is that stricter penalties and laws must be enforced through collaborative prevention and awareness to thwart human trafficking. Journalists such as Nicholas Kristof have spent years promoting awareness overseas by publishing impacting stories of individuals in New York Times. His stories have brought in mass donations for sex trafficking victims. With the victims of human trafficking in the U.S. quickly approaching an estimated 300,000, journalistic efforts and media awareness need to be made in our hometown. Yet, before an issue can be given attention and prevented, it must be addressed and accurately depicted.

In 2010, in section 110 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act, President Obama declared the actions he will take toward ending human trafficking. In a proclamation, Obama states that prevention efforts through education and awareness campaigns must be spread, efforts must be increased for the investigation and prosecution of traffickers, and efforts for the protection, justice and aftercare of victims must also be increased. As well, Congress recently passed an omnibus appropriations bill that will provide funding to major organizations that provide long-term care and justice to victims of human trafficking. With the combined efforts of President Obama planning to fight this issue through increased funding, prevention and awareness, and an educated society, human trafficking in the U.S. will hopefully dwindle when we, as a nation, effectively combat it.

1)      Not For Sale Campaign:

Not For Sale Campaign is a global campaign to prevent and prosecute human trafficking and slavery. This website posts articles about new developments and real-life stories about survivors of human trafficking. It provides information about current prevention projects, events and ways all members of society can become involved in stopping this issue. This source can be categorized as institutional because Not For Sale is a non-profit organization that is advocating for survivors and the prevention of human trafficking. The sources used on this website are academic, institutional, journalistic and government sources. They include press releases, articles from academic sources, journalistic articles about the issue from around the United States and the world and governmental current news dealing with the issue. The audience that Not For Sale is speaking and advertising to, are likely young Americans looking for information and ways to help prevent modern day slavery around the world. This campaign thrives off member donations and purchases from their “freedom store” which sells free trade products. Not For Sale Campaign’s goal is to increase aid and funding to survivors of trafficking. This website relates the issue of human trafficking to both poverty and racism and stresses that in order to bring the changes resources needed, funding is a necessity.

http://www.notforsalecampaign.org/

(Feb. 21, 10 9:50 am)

2)      Esther Nelson:

Esther Nelson is an advocate for minors of sex trafficking at the Sexual Assault Resource Center (SARC) in the local Portland Metro area. She provides a voice and relief for girls who would otherwise not have a voice in the justice system and recovery process. Esther is a citizen source who supports the end to human trafficking through increased funding for programs that provide services to victims. She also supports harsher prosecution of traffickers and more state funding to the investigative system for discovery and prosecution.  Esther and her work at SARC, reach out to local teens and young women. The office at SARC caters to parents, teens and children of trafficked survivors. They provide onsite counseling and information about human trafficking in the Portland area. Their mission is to provide as much care possible to the victims, while also educating the public. SARC is government funded and can only give as many resources as the government will allow its funding to cover. SARC and other resource centers in the local area are unable to provide full care and continual services if the state funding is not suffice.

Esther Nelson- SARC: 503-626-9100 ex:222

http://www.sarcoregon.org/ (Feb. 21, 10 at 11:00 am)

3)      Jeri Williams :

Jeri Williams works for the city of Portland as a civil engagement officer and is also an activist who fights for justice and the prevention of human trafficking. A victim of human trafficking herself, Jeri has made it her goal in life to not only fight for all types of justice in the United States, but also to be an inspiration to survivors. Jeri is a citizen source who spreads her story and activism to citizens all over the nation. Jeri works with organizations such as Global Health Promise which is a non-profit institutional source.  Her work is directed mainly towards the State Government, in an attempt to create legal change. As an activist, she has helped pass the House Bill 3623 through the Senate, which requires the hotline for human trafficking to be posted on the door of every liquor store in Oregon. She is currently fighting for extended services to victims of trafficking and more government funded programs. She speaks to audiences such as college students and justice support groups. Her activism has called her to approach the state legislature and educate representatives with her story of survival. Jeri argues that the only way change can be brought to this issue is through legal adjustments.

Jeri Williams- Diversity and Civic Leadership Advisor: 503-823-5827   jeri.williams@ci.portland.or.us

4)      The White House:

Whitehouse.gov is a government source that details the actions being taken by the United States government towards issues such as human trafficking. In 2010, in section 110 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act, President Obama declares the actions he will take toward ending human trafficking. Obama states that prevention efforts through education and awareness campaigns must be spread, efforts must be increased for the investigation and prosecution of traffickers, and efforts for the protection, justice and aftercare of victims must also be increased. The documents, on whitehouse.gov, are institutional government sources, but provide research that can be identified as academic. Before an issue can be given attention and prevented, it must be addressed and accurately depicted. These academic sources, used on whitehouse.gov, address the growing issue of human trafficking in the United States through the White House documents. The audience absorbing this information is the U.S. citizenry and the government is paying for this information. Whitehouse.gov is influencing the opinion of the United States and administering information about changes being made in human trafficking to the public. The U.S government dictates the amount of prevention and funding to organizations through their judgment of the circumstances of the issue.

http://www.whitehouse.gov/search/site/human%20trafficking (Feb. 22, 10 at 4:22 pm)

5)      Sex Trafficking of Women in the United States:

This publication is a study that depicts human trafficking in the United States through accumulated studies of human trafficking survivors and research reports. The main study used interviews of 128 trafficked women to compile an analysis about violence, crime, and the sex industry in the United States. This publication is a journalistic source, but contains academic research that influences the reader through data and statistical interpretations. The academic research found that the main contributors to human trafficking in the United States were economic desperation, poverty, classism and more frequently targeted racial groups. This study provides the audience with statistics and real life accounts of human trafficking in America. It was created using Federal Funds provided by the U.S. Through investigations of victims, traffickers and the sex industry, this publication formed a foundation of knowledge that can be used by the government to make executive decisions towards this issue. The conclusion this publication came to is that stricter penalties and laws must be enforced through collaborative prevention and awareness to thwart human trafficking.

Raymond, Janice and Hughes, Donna. Sex Trafficking of Women in the United States:

International and Domestic Trends. Maryland: NCJRS, 2001.

http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/187774.pdf (Feb. 22, 10 at 5:15 pm)

6)      Foreign Policy in Focus:

The article titled, Sex Trafficking: The Abolitionist Fallacy, published by Foreign Policy in Focus explains what the United States government should do to create substantial change in the issue of human trafficking. This article that analyzes foreign policy during the Bush administration argues that prosecuting the prostitute in the crime of trafficking will only create a larger issue. Instead, the U.S. government, under the Obama, administration must reject these old policies and move forward by providing the victims with professional treatment and harshly prosecuting the pimp. This is a journalistic article that uses government sources such as the Bush and Obama administrations and also references the journalistic book, Sex Trafficking: Inside the Business of Modern Slavery by Kara. The changes proposed in this article would be government funded and controlled. The context is simple for a general audience to understand as it is addressing the former and current policies of prostitution in the United States. This abolitionist has directed her argument toward what direct actions need to be done based on the current realities and circumstances of this issue. The argument made is that all prostitution is trafficking, and that the United States’ method of creating change by locking away the victims will not effectively stop this crime.

http://www.fpif.org/articles/sex_trafficking_the_abolitionist_fallacy (Feb. 22, 10 at 8:40 pm)

7)      Methodological Challenges in Research with Trafficked Persons: Tales from the Field:

This article was written by anthropologists in an attempt to display the research they obtained, through ethnography, about how survivors live their lives after being trafficked. Their research found that The United States focuses on the victim being rescued, but scarcely on the victim in the years following the rescue. Research done for this publication is academic research, but is an institutional source. This publication found that the United States focuses on the origin and prevention of trafficking and that more research needs to be done about the victims themselves to prevent this issue. This publication was funded by the International Organization of Migration and was made to present the research to a global population, specifically other social academic researchers. La Strada International sponsored all the research done in this publication. La Strada is an international organization whose mission is to influence the media and government authorities about the truths of human trafficking, as well as educate about human rights to promote awareness to the government and public. This publication is one example of educating for the government and society with the purpose of creating change. The argument this article makes is that the U.S. should begin to pay more attention to the causes of human trafficking and the similarities between the victims and between the traffickers in order to stop human trafficking.

http://lastradainternational.org/lsidocs/282%20IOM%20survey%20trafficking%20%28Global%29.pdf#page=37 (Feb. 23, 10 at 10:00 am)

8)    Citizen Magazine:

The article, Reaching into the Dark, published by Citizen Magazine, provides a model used in Phoenix, Arizona, for change in human trafficking. This model, which has been constructed by Phoenix Christian organizations, consists of raising local awareness, providing long term care for victims, changing legislation and tightening consequences for the traffickers and johns. This is an institutional article as it is sponsored by the non-profit organization, Focus on the Family and is funded by the federal government. The journalist of this article, Karla Dial stresses that human trafficking is an issue rooted in the traffickers, not the prostitutes. She argues that loop-holes in the legislative system must be eliminated so that traffickers receive the punishment they deserve and the victims receive the justice they deserve. Citizen magazine is a Christian magazine and the readers are mostly educated, female, and Christian. The placement of this article in Citizen perhaps was intentional because females are the more likely audience to be impacted by the realities of human trafficking and influenced to make a change. The federal government funding the publication of this article is showing that there is a conscious effort being made for change. The first step in eliminating this issue is for the government to educate the public and motivate involvement.  By educating the audience, a flow of donations to organizations such as Focus on the Family will likely follow.

Dial, Karla. “Reaching into the Dark.” Citizen. March 2010: vol. 3. Print.

http://www.citizenlink.org/FOSI/pornography/sextrafficking/ (March 10, 2010 at 8:00pm)

9)      Nicholas Kristof:

Nicholas Kristof is a columnist for the New York Times and has documented human trafficking around the world. He has done most of his work on human trafficking in Cambodia, but from his experience he has developed a perception of where and how change needs to be made. Kristof has witnessed the U.S. intervening and cracking down on the Cambodian government. During the Bush administration, Kristof noted that conservatives and Evangelical Christians are working the hardest to end this crime overseas. This is a journalistic source as it is a publication from New York Times. The audience that the New York Times specifically addresses is the general public of the United States, specifically young citizens looking to be educated about current debates and world issues. Kristof’s publications in New York Times on human trafficking draw attention to a wide audience and helps create awareness and strategies for prevention. In his articles, he tells the stories of individuals which connects the audience to the issue at a personal level. The argument that Kristof makes in his article, “Stopping The Traffickers” is that government agencies around the world and non-profit organizations need to become more aware of this growing issue and exert more of an effort to prevent it.

http://www.nytimes.com/2004/01/31/opinion/stopping-the-traffickers.html (March 9, 10 at 6pm)

10)      Askville by Amazon:

Askville is a community discussion forum provided by amazon.com. This forum posts questions to a community audience about issues such as prostitution legalization. One community member responded pro-legalization of prostitution by arguing that the crime rate would lower and that law-enforcement would be able to focus on more substantial issues. His argument provides academic research and uses sources such as citizens involved in the prostitution industry. James Alan Fox, a criminal justice professor, and Margo St. James, a leading advocate for legalizing prostitution agree. Although his argument is strong and utilizes knowledgeable sources, there are many other sources, specifically academic research on the prostitutes and their demographics, which refute this blogger’s argument and reveals that most victims have not chosen their occupation, but rather are forced into the business by a pimp. This post represents the viewpoint of a community member and can be viewed and argued by other community members. Ultimately, the community is the most influential group in changing this issue. Amazon is a community source that is created by Jeffrey Preston, and receives funding from their sales of products and support from sponsored brands. This blogger believes that no more funding or attention should be provided to the prevention of human trafficking, but rather, that prostitution should be legalized. His main reasoning is that illegal prostitution reduces the quality of life in a society.

http://askville.amazon.com/Pros-Cons-Legal-Prostitution/AnswerDetails.do?requestId=11832856&responseId=11845254 (March 10, 2010 at 9:00pm)

On March 4, 2010, Apple identified to having at least 11 children forcefully working in sweatshops in China to build iPhones. In other Apple factories overseas, there have been reports of illegal and exploitative working conditions. Apple has not yet released any statements about what they will do to prevent child labor.

http://humantrafficking.change.org/blog/view/apple_admits_child_labor_sweatshops_used_to_build_iphones

In Nashville Tennessee, on February 23rd,  Mercy Ministries and The Home Foundation joined arms to develop residential shelters that also provide aftercare and counseling to trafficked victims. The Christian Trafficking Shelters Association is providing funding to this new prevention and aftercare program in an attempt to raise awareness and bring change in the U.S.

http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/mercy-ministries-and-the-home-foundation-partner-to-provide-residential-care-for-us-victims-of-sex-trafficking-85075867.html

Young women and girls, who are trafficked for sex in Portland, are being sucked into a repetitive, lucrative crime. In the eyes of society, a young woman over the age of 18 becomes liable for their actions and is often times prosecuted, not as the victim, but as the offender of their own crime.

Jeri estimates she turned tricks with over 1,200 men during the summer of 1989.  Her transition from an abusive relationship with her husband into the violence-driven bondage of a prostitute happened so Jeri could afford to raise her children. Like all young women who fall victim to sex trafficking in the United States, Jeri became trapped, brainwashed, and raped of her entire self. This viscous consumption of millions of lives is due, in part, to the rapid, rising demand for sex in the U.S., as well as hard economic times.

In her vocation for sex trafficking of minor survivors, Esther Nelson stresses that the prostituted girl is not the criminal and not at fault for her repeated acts, but rather the victim of a dangerous crime. The girls who fall victim to trafficking in the local Portland area are usually searching for love that they are not finding inside their home, or running away from abuse. Most runaway to find a better life and a confidante to give them the affection or support they need. “Once a girl enters the streets in Portland, she is solicited by a pimp within the first 48 hours,” according to Esther Nelson.

Jeri was seized by a pimp when she took to the streets and was raped by the members of the gang with whom her new pimp was associated. She was then trapped, both socially and physically, and was unable to leave her new life. Locked in a room by day and threatened with beatings if she did not bring her pimp at least $300 dollars each night, Jeri and her two young children were caught in a world where violence and fear controlled their every move.

Detective Todd Baltzell describes the viewpoint of society as well as the mentality of a young victim caught in sex trafficking. “We, as a society, like to umbrella everything and we tend to forget that people are individuals… For example, someone who has been trapped in sex trafficking, even when someone tries to take them out of it, they will go back into it, because that’s the world they know. And it won’t make sense to society… It appears that these victims don’t want to be helped, but really, they don’t recognize how to get out of it.”

Jeri was forced to prostitute herself even after she was stabbed in the neck by a trick who demanded she give him all her money. Jeri recalls that she refused to give up the money she had acquired that night for fear of being beaten by her pimp when she returned home short the $300 he required of her every night. This near death experience awakened Jeri to the victimhood she had been enduring for so long. She now tells a story of survival, but only after surviving a story of terror.

Advocate Esther Nelson states that, “We have a system in place that is supposed to afford victims justice and until we start holding traffickers and “Johns” accountable, we’re not going to see a change. If we don’t reduce the demand and selling of humans, we’re not going to stop seeing this phenomenon take place.” Sex is viewed as a common place in modern day society. Resources and advocates believe that the victim is never to blame, only the hostile people, everyday forces and local businesses that encourage and support the selling of humans.

Sources:

1)      Todd Baltzell- Sex Abuse Detective at Newberg Police Department

Newberg Police Dept: (503) 538-8321

2)      Esther Nelson- Advocate for minor sexual assault survivors at the Sexual Assault Resource Center in Beaverton

SARC: 503-626-9100 ex:222 (for Esther)

3)      Jeri Williams- Sex trafficking survivor and inspirational speaker from Portland Oregon

503-477-4620

Should the United States government, given the current, depressed economic state, increase efforts to investigate and prosecute human trafficking crimes and increase funding to victims through protection services?

Human trafficking in the United States is currently the fastest growing crime. The main contributors to human trafficking are classism, poverty, racism and economic instability. The United States’ government is ultimately in control of this issue and controls the support of all change at the state and local levels through funding and establishing harsher laws.

1)    Not For Sale Campaign:

Not For Sale Campaign is a global campaign to prevent and prosecute human trafficking and slavery. This website posts articles about new developments and real-life stories about survivors of human trafficking. It provides information about current prevention projects, events and ways all members of society can become involved in stopping this issue. This source can be categorized as institutional because Not For Sale is a non-profit organization that is advocating for survivors and the prevention of human trafficking. The sources used on this website are academic, institutional, journalistic and government sources. They include press releases, articles from academic sources, journalistic articles about the issue from around the United States and the world and governmental current news dealing with the issue. The audience that Not For Sale is speaking and advertising to, are likely young Americans looking for information and ways to help prevent modern day slavery around the world. This campaign thrives off member donations and purchases from their “freedom store” which sells free trade products. Not For Sale Campaign’s goal is to increase aid and funding to survivors of trafficking. This website relates the issue of human trafficking to both poverty and racism and stresses that in order to bring the changes resources needed, funding is a necessity.

http://www.notforsalecampaign.org/ (Feb. 21, 10 9:50 am)

2)    Esther Nelson:

Esther Nelson is an advocate for minors of sex trafficking at the Sexual Assault Resource Center (SARC) in the local Portland Metro area. She provides a voice and relief for girls who would otherwise not have a voice in the justice system and recovery process. Esther is a citizen source who supports the end to human trafficking through increased funding for programs that provide services to victims. She also supports harsher prosecution of traffickers and more state funding to the investigative system for discovery and prosecution.  Esther and her work at SARC, reach out to local teens and young women. SARC is government funded and can only give as many resources as the government will allow its funding to cover. SARC and other resource centers in the local area are unable to provide full care and continual services if the state funding is not suffice.

Esther Nelson- SARC: 503-626-9100 ex:222

http://www.sarcoregon.org/ (Feb. 21, 10 at 11:00 am)

3)    Jeri Williams :

Jeri Williams works for the city of Portland as a civil engagement officer and is also an activist who fights for justice and the prevention of human trafficking. A victim of human trafficking herself, Jeri has made it her goal in life to not only fight for all types of justice in the United States, but also to be an inspiration to survivors. Jeri is a citizen source who spreads her story and activism to citizens all over the nation. Jeri works with organizations such as Global Health Promise which is a non-profit institutional source.  Her work is directed mainly towards the State Government, in an attempt to create legal change. As an activist, she has helped pass the House Bill 3623 through the Senate, which requires the hotline for human trafficking to be posted on the door of every liquor store in Oregon. She is currently fighting for extended services to victims of trafficking and more government funded programs. Jeri argues that the only way change can be brought to this issue is through legal adjustments.

Jeri Williams- Diversity and Civic Leadership Advisor: 503-823-5827   jeri.williams@ci.portland.or.us

4)    Global Health Promise:

Global Health Promise is a non-profit organization dedicated to helping the families and children of prostituted, trafficked and sexually exploited women. This is an institutional source that includes journalistic sources within website such as articles, news archives and media coverage. The journalistic sources included within the website give the viewer a basic interpretation of the current and ongoing issue of human trafficking. Global Health Promise is directing its information to a general audience, including U.S. citizens who would be likely to give donations. Donations are the main source of funding for this organization. Their donations go towards providing help and services to the trafficked mothers and families. Global Health Promise’s goal is to reach out to as many trafficked victims and families as possible, but as always, funding is a must, and this organization cannot make their impact if they do not receive donations or government funding.

http://www.taskforce.org/globalhealthpromise/index.htm (Feb. 21, 10 2:10 pm)

5)    The White House:

Whitehouse.gov is a government source that details the actions being taken by the United States government towards issues such as human trafficking. In 2010, in section 110 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act, President Obama declares the actions he will take toward ending human trafficking. Obama states that prevention efforts through education and awareness campaigns must be spread, efforts must be increased for the investigation and prosecution of traffickers, and efforts for the protection, justice and aftercare of victims must also be increased. The documents, on whitehouse.gov, are institutional government sources, but provide research that can be identified as academic. Before an issue can be given attention and prevented, it must be addressed and accurately depicted. These academic sources, used on whitehouse.gov, address the growing issue of human trafficking in the United States through the White House documents. The audience absorbing this information is the U.S. citizenry and the government is paying for this information. The U.S government dictates the amount of prevention and funding to organizations through their judgment of the circumstances of the issue.

http://www.whitehouse.gov/search/site/human%20trafficking (Feb. 22, 10 at 4:22 pm)

6)    Sex Trafficking of Women in the United States:

This publication is a study that depicts human trafficking in the United States through accumulated studies of human trafficking survivors and research reports. The main study used interviews of 128 trafficked women to compile an analysis about violence, crime, and the sex industry in the United States. This publication is a journalistic source, but contains academic research that influences the reader through data and statistical interpretations. The academic research found that the main contributors to human trafficking in the United States were economic desperation, poverty, classism and more frequently targeted racial groups. This study provides the audience with statistics and real life accounts of human trafficking in America. It was created using Federal Funds provided by the U.S. The conclusion this publication came to is that stricter penalties and laws must be enforced through collaborative prevention and awareness to thwart human trafficking.

Raymond, Janice and Hughes, Donna. Sex Trafficking of Women in the United States:International and Domestic Trends. Maryland: NCJRS, 2001.

http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/187774.pdf (Feb. 22, 10 at 5:15 pm)

7)    Foreign Policy in Focus:

The article titled, Sex Trafficking: The Abolitionist Fallacy, published by Foreign Policy in Focus explains what the United States government should do to create substantial change in the issue of human trafficking. This article that analyzes foreign policy during the Bush administration argues that prosecuting the prostitute in the crime of trafficking will only create a larger issue. Instead, the U.S. government, under the Obama, administration must reject these old policies and move forward by providing the victims with professional treatment and harshly prosecuting the pimp. This is a journalistic article that uses government sources such as the Bush and Obama administrations and also references the journalistic book, Sex Trafficking: Inside the Business of Modern Slavery by Kara. The changes proposed in this article would be government funded and controlled. The context is simple for a general audience to understand as it is addressing the former and current policies of prostitution in the United States. The argument made is that all prostitution is trafficking, and that the United States’ method of creating change by locking away the victims will not effectively stop this crime.

http://www.fpif.org/articles/sex_trafficking_the_abolitionist_fallacy (Feb. 22, 10 at 8:40 pm)

8)    National Institution of Justice:

This website is a compilation of research and data collected in the United States about human trafficking. It provides information about statistics and projects conducted for prevention and research, as well as previous and current developments and community prevention methods. This is an academic source that contains institutional, government source links that provide funding and mission statements. There are also some journalistic sources that display the research in journalistic ways.  These sources lay a background for human trafficking and provide the approaches that have been taken in attempt to end this issue. This website provides research to the world and human trafficking organizations, in addition, evidence that pushes the point that change needs to be made. The National Institute of Justice funds all research. This website makes the argument that law enforcement must make a significant response to this issue.

http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/international/programs/inttraffick.html (Feb. 23, 10 at 10:00 am)

9)    GEMS:

GEMS, which stands for Girls’ Educational and Mentoring Services, is an organization that feeds support and positive self-esteem to youth who are survivors of human trafficking. This website provides news and media coverage of this issue, as well as empowering music, videos and publications. This website is a community source but provides journalistic and institutional sources. These sources provide the viewer with current information about the issue in the U.S. and campaign/prevention efforts. Like an institutional source, GEMS survives off of community and organizational donations. With these donations, GEMS creates impacting videos and events that serve the purpose of change. This website stresses the argument that survivors need services, aftercare and support, and without organizations such as GEMS, this issue would be even larger.

http://www.gems-girls.org/ (Feb. 23, 10 at 10:12 am)

10) Methodological Challenges in Research with Trafficked Persons: Tales from the Field:

This article was written by anthropologists in an attempt to display the research they obtained, through ethnography, about how survivors live their lives after being trafficked. Their research found that The United States focuses on the victim being rescued, but scarcely on the victim in the years following the rescue. This is a journalistic source, but all research done for this publication is academic research. This publication found that the United States focuses on the origin and prevention of trafficking and that more research needs to be done about the victims themselves to prevent this issue. This publication was funded by the International Organization of Migration and was made to present the research to a global population, specifically other social academic researchers. The argument this article makes is that the U.S. should begin to pay more attention to the causes of human trafficking and the similarities of the victims and the traffickers to create change.

http://lastradainternational.org/lsidocs/282%20IOM%20survey%20trafficking%20%28Global%29.pdf#page=37 (Feb. 23, 10 at 12:20 pm)

On Tuesday, Februaury 16th the HB 3623 bill went to the state Senate for review. This bill, which requires the human trafficking hotline  to be posted on the door of all liquor stores in Oregon, passed unanimously in the House on February 9th. This bill is the first step in making a small change towards the prevention of human trafficking in Oregon.

http://www.polarisproject.org/images/rep%20barton%20hb3623%20human%20trafficking.pdf

Ten Americans Arrested  for Trafficking Haitian Children

Ten American Baptist missionaries were caught while attempting to cross the border into the Dominican Republic with 33 Haitian children on January 29th. None of the children had identification or documented proof that they were orphans. Authorities claim that when seized from their kidnappers, most of the children claimed to have living family members and were not truly orphans. The Americans, who are now in custody on charges of kidnapping, claimed that their purpose was to take the “orphaned” children to safety in the Dominican Republic, however they had no legal documentation to do so.

http://abcnews.go.com/WN/HaitiEarthquake/haiti-earthquake-ten-americans-charged-child-trafficking-haiti/story?id=9712436

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