1)      Not For Sale Campaign:

Not For Sale Campaign is a global campaign to prevent and prosecute human trafficking and slavery. This website posts articles about new developments and real-life stories about survivors of human trafficking. It provides information about current prevention projects, events and ways all members of society can become involved in stopping this issue. This source can be categorized as institutional because Not For Sale is a non-profit organization that is advocating for survivors and the prevention of human trafficking. The sources used on this website are academic, institutional, journalistic and government sources. They include press releases, articles from academic sources, journalistic articles about the issue from around the United States and the world and governmental current news dealing with the issue. The audience that Not For Sale is speaking and advertising to, are likely young Americans looking for information and ways to help prevent modern day slavery around the world. This campaign thrives off member donations and purchases from their “freedom store” which sells free trade products. Not For Sale Campaign’s goal is to increase aid and funding to survivors of trafficking. This website relates the issue of human trafficking to both poverty and racism and stresses that in order to bring the changes resources needed, funding is a necessity.


(Feb. 21, 10 9:50 am)

2)      Esther Nelson:

Esther Nelson is an advocate for minors of sex trafficking at the Sexual Assault Resource Center (SARC) in the local Portland Metro area. She provides a voice and relief for girls who would otherwise not have a voice in the justice system and recovery process. Esther is a citizen source who supports the end to human trafficking through increased funding for programs that provide services to victims. She also supports harsher prosecution of traffickers and more state funding to the investigative system for discovery and prosecution.  Esther and her work at SARC, reach out to local teens and young women. The office at SARC caters to parents, teens and children of trafficked survivors. They provide onsite counseling and information about human trafficking in the Portland area. Their mission is to provide as much care possible to the victims, while also educating the public. SARC is government funded and can only give as many resources as the government will allow its funding to cover. SARC and other resource centers in the local area are unable to provide full care and continual services if the state funding is not suffice.

Esther Nelson- SARC: 503-626-9100 ex:222

http://www.sarcoregon.org/ (Feb. 21, 10 at 11:00 am)

3)      Jeri Williams :

Jeri Williams works for the city of Portland as a civil engagement officer and is also an activist who fights for justice and the prevention of human trafficking. A victim of human trafficking herself, Jeri has made it her goal in life to not only fight for all types of justice in the United States, but also to be an inspiration to survivors. Jeri is a citizen source who spreads her story and activism to citizens all over the nation. Jeri works with organizations such as Global Health Promise which is a non-profit institutional source.  Her work is directed mainly towards the State Government, in an attempt to create legal change. As an activist, she has helped pass the House Bill 3623 through the Senate, which requires the hotline for human trafficking to be posted on the door of every liquor store in Oregon. She is currently fighting for extended services to victims of trafficking and more government funded programs. She speaks to audiences such as college students and justice support groups. Her activism has called her to approach the state legislature and educate representatives with her story of survival. Jeri argues that the only way change can be brought to this issue is through legal adjustments.

Jeri Williams- Diversity and Civic Leadership Advisor: 503-823-5827   jeri.williams@ci.portland.or.us

4)      The White House:

Whitehouse.gov is a government source that details the actions being taken by the United States government towards issues such as human trafficking. In 2010, in section 110 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act, President Obama declares the actions he will take toward ending human trafficking. Obama states that prevention efforts through education and awareness campaigns must be spread, efforts must be increased for the investigation and prosecution of traffickers, and efforts for the protection, justice and aftercare of victims must also be increased. The documents, on whitehouse.gov, are institutional government sources, but provide research that can be identified as academic. Before an issue can be given attention and prevented, it must be addressed and accurately depicted. These academic sources, used on whitehouse.gov, address the growing issue of human trafficking in the United States through the White House documents. The audience absorbing this information is the U.S. citizenry and the government is paying for this information. Whitehouse.gov is influencing the opinion of the United States and administering information about changes being made in human trafficking to the public. The U.S government dictates the amount of prevention and funding to organizations through their judgment of the circumstances of the issue.

http://www.whitehouse.gov/search/site/human%20trafficking (Feb. 22, 10 at 4:22 pm)

5)      Sex Trafficking of Women in the United States:

This publication is a study that depicts human trafficking in the United States through accumulated studies of human trafficking survivors and research reports. The main study used interviews of 128 trafficked women to compile an analysis about violence, crime, and the sex industry in the United States. This publication is a journalistic source, but contains academic research that influences the reader through data and statistical interpretations. The academic research found that the main contributors to human trafficking in the United States were economic desperation, poverty, classism and more frequently targeted racial groups. This study provides the audience with statistics and real life accounts of human trafficking in America. It was created using Federal Funds provided by the U.S. Through investigations of victims, traffickers and the sex industry, this publication formed a foundation of knowledge that can be used by the government to make executive decisions towards this issue. The conclusion this publication came to is that stricter penalties and laws must be enforced through collaborative prevention and awareness to thwart human trafficking.

Raymond, Janice and Hughes, Donna. Sex Trafficking of Women in the United States:

International and Domestic Trends. Maryland: NCJRS, 2001.

http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/187774.pdf (Feb. 22, 10 at 5:15 pm)

6)      Foreign Policy in Focus:

The article titled, Sex Trafficking: The Abolitionist Fallacy, published by Foreign Policy in Focus explains what the United States government should do to create substantial change in the issue of human trafficking. This article that analyzes foreign policy during the Bush administration argues that prosecuting the prostitute in the crime of trafficking will only create a larger issue. Instead, the U.S. government, under the Obama, administration must reject these old policies and move forward by providing the victims with professional treatment and harshly prosecuting the pimp. This is a journalistic article that uses government sources such as the Bush and Obama administrations and also references the journalistic book, Sex Trafficking: Inside the Business of Modern Slavery by Kara. The changes proposed in this article would be government funded and controlled. The context is simple for a general audience to understand as it is addressing the former and current policies of prostitution in the United States. This abolitionist has directed her argument toward what direct actions need to be done based on the current realities and circumstances of this issue. The argument made is that all prostitution is trafficking, and that the United States’ method of creating change by locking away the victims will not effectively stop this crime.

http://www.fpif.org/articles/sex_trafficking_the_abolitionist_fallacy (Feb. 22, 10 at 8:40 pm)

7)      Methodological Challenges in Research with Trafficked Persons: Tales from the Field:

This article was written by anthropologists in an attempt to display the research they obtained, through ethnography, about how survivors live their lives after being trafficked. Their research found that The United States focuses on the victim being rescued, but scarcely on the victim in the years following the rescue. Research done for this publication is academic research, but is an institutional source. This publication found that the United States focuses on the origin and prevention of trafficking and that more research needs to be done about the victims themselves to prevent this issue. This publication was funded by the International Organization of Migration and was made to present the research to a global population, specifically other social academic researchers. La Strada International sponsored all the research done in this publication. La Strada is an international organization whose mission is to influence the media and government authorities about the truths of human trafficking, as well as educate about human rights to promote awareness to the government and public. This publication is one example of educating for the government and society with the purpose of creating change. The argument this article makes is that the U.S. should begin to pay more attention to the causes of human trafficking and the similarities between the victims and between the traffickers in order to stop human trafficking.

http://lastradainternational.org/lsidocs/282%20IOM%20survey%20trafficking%20%28Global%29.pdf#page=37 (Feb. 23, 10 at 10:00 am)

8)    Citizen Magazine:

The article, Reaching into the Dark, published by Citizen Magazine, provides a model used in Phoenix, Arizona, for change in human trafficking. This model, which has been constructed by Phoenix Christian organizations, consists of raising local awareness, providing long term care for victims, changing legislation and tightening consequences for the traffickers and johns. This is an institutional article as it is sponsored by the non-profit organization, Focus on the Family and is funded by the federal government. The journalist of this article, Karla Dial stresses that human trafficking is an issue rooted in the traffickers, not the prostitutes. She argues that loop-holes in the legislative system must be eliminated so that traffickers receive the punishment they deserve and the victims receive the justice they deserve. Citizen magazine is a Christian magazine and the readers are mostly educated, female, and Christian. The placement of this article in Citizen perhaps was intentional because females are the more likely audience to be impacted by the realities of human trafficking and influenced to make a change. The federal government funding the publication of this article is showing that there is a conscious effort being made for change. The first step in eliminating this issue is for the government to educate the public and motivate involvement.  By educating the audience, a flow of donations to organizations such as Focus on the Family will likely follow.

Dial, Karla. “Reaching into the Dark.” Citizen. March 2010: vol. 3. Print.

http://www.citizenlink.org/FOSI/pornography/sextrafficking/ (March 10, 2010 at 8:00pm)

9)      Nicholas Kristof:

Nicholas Kristof is a columnist for the New York Times and has documented human trafficking around the world. He has done most of his work on human trafficking in Cambodia, but from his experience he has developed a perception of where and how change needs to be made. Kristof has witnessed the U.S. intervening and cracking down on the Cambodian government. During the Bush administration, Kristof noted that conservatives and Evangelical Christians are working the hardest to end this crime overseas. This is a journalistic source as it is a publication from New York Times. The audience that the New York Times specifically addresses is the general public of the United States, specifically young citizens looking to be educated about current debates and world issues. Kristof’s publications in New York Times on human trafficking draw attention to a wide audience and helps create awareness and strategies for prevention. In his articles, he tells the stories of individuals which connects the audience to the issue at a personal level. The argument that Kristof makes in his article, “Stopping The Traffickers” is that government agencies around the world and non-profit organizations need to become more aware of this growing issue and exert more of an effort to prevent it.

http://www.nytimes.com/2004/01/31/opinion/stopping-the-traffickers.html (March 9, 10 at 6pm)

10)      Askville by Amazon:

Askville is a community discussion forum provided by amazon.com. This forum posts questions to a community audience about issues such as prostitution legalization. One community member responded pro-legalization of prostitution by arguing that the crime rate would lower and that law-enforcement would be able to focus on more substantial issues. His argument provides academic research and uses sources such as citizens involved in the prostitution industry. James Alan Fox, a criminal justice professor, and Margo St. James, a leading advocate for legalizing prostitution agree. Although his argument is strong and utilizes knowledgeable sources, there are many other sources, specifically academic research on the prostitutes and their demographics, which refute this blogger’s argument and reveals that most victims have not chosen their occupation, but rather are forced into the business by a pimp. This post represents the viewpoint of a community member and can be viewed and argued by other community members. Ultimately, the community is the most influential group in changing this issue. Amazon is a community source that is created by Jeffrey Preston, and receives funding from their sales of products and support from sponsored brands. This blogger believes that no more funding or attention should be provided to the prevention of human trafficking, but rather, that prostitution should be legalized. His main reasoning is that illegal prostitution reduces the quality of life in a society.

http://askville.amazon.com/Pros-Cons-Legal-Prostitution/AnswerDetails.do?requestId=11832856&responseId=11845254 (March 10, 2010 at 9:00pm)